Interview with a Nutritarian: Kurt

When I met my husband, Kurt, over 30 years ago, he was a bon a fide cowboy. Being athletic, he was fit and trim and rarely had a health concern so he never went to a doctor. He also had the uncanny ability to only eat when hungry. Even if there were only a couple bites of his favorite pie left on a plate, and he was full, he couldn’t take another bite. However, he was a “meat and potatoes” kind of guy; a 16 oz steak and baked potato slathered with butter was the ultimate meal.

Over time, Kurt traded his saddle in for a computer to financially support raising our family, and his life became sedentary. However, his diet changed considerably about four years ago when I decided to embark on a health makeover by following Eat to Live. For over three years Kurt’s meals at home consisted of high-nutrient foods, but he affectionately called his way of eating “Fuhrman-Lite”. He basically followed the principles of nutritarian eating about 70% of the time, but his daily lunches out consisted of fried chicken dinners, Greek specials or Subway sandwiches and chips, and he loved to treat himself to chocolate shakes, cookies, and candy bars on a regular basis. Since he wasn’t significantly overweight he continued to enjoy his daily splurges.

Last year, at age 53 he was experiencing frequent chest pains. It occurred when under stress at work, exercising or exerting himself, and eventually he started to be more and more uncomfortable even at rest, while sitting and lying down. He’d even re-position the seatbelt shoulder strap while driving, thinking that may be the cause of the pain. It increased over several months, but he didn’t talk much about it or go to a doctor. 

Thankfully, Dr. Fuhrman came to my hometown to speak at an all-day Health Immersion, and I happened to mention Kurt’s symptoms to him, and he spoke to Kurt about them.  Dr. Fuhrman was immediately concerned and said that Kurt was experiencing unstable angina; that he had one or more arteries that were over 90% blocked. Even with Dr. Fuhrman telling him the gravity of his life-threatening situation, Kurt continued to eat the standard American diet for another week until his blood pressure shot up dangerously high one morning. (Dr. Fuhrman had instructed him to check his blood pressure on a daily basis). That afternoon he was sweating, had pain in his neck and left arm, and felt terrible overall. The denial was over, and Kurt instantly became a fully committed nutritarian. That was a year ago this week.  Welcome to Disease Proof, Kurt.

 

What was your life like before fully committing to the nutritarian eating-style?

I was tired and didn’t feel well most of the time, but because the symptoms developed so gradually, I accepted them as normal. It was challenging for me to go for a walk down the road, and I usually had to take a nap after lunch every day but didn’t realize it was connected to the food that I was eating. I also had chest pain, eventually even when sitting and lying down. I was concerned about the pains and knew that I needed to change my eating habits, but the thought of giving up meat was the biggest obstacle that kept me from fully doing it. Being married to you [Emily] I thought I was eating “healthy enough” at home, at least healthier than I had for most of my life so I was relatively content. 

 

How do you feel now?

I have a lot more energy now, and I can walk briskly without exertion. I wake up rested every morning, and I no longer need a nap after lunch. I lost over 25 lbs those first three months, (and dropped a clothing size), and I’ve been maintaining that weight since. My blood pressures are consistently under 115/75, and the ongoing chest pains are gone.

I used to get a lot of sinus infections during the winter months, but I haven’t been sick this entire year; not even a cold. I’m a computer consultant and work on client’s computer systems. Invariably someone at a customer’s site is sick so I’m exposed to a lot of bugs, but I haven't caught anything all year.  I can even smell things now that I couldn’t before, and my taste buds have greatly improved. Foods and beverages that I used to like, I don’t even like anymore; including milk, pop, and lemonade, and foods that I used to not like, I now enjoy.  

 

 Do you have any success tip(s) to share?

 

  • It’s important to have a good understanding of Dr. Fuhrman’s teachings. Emily had tried to encourage me to read Eat to Live, but reading it just wasn’t that big of a deal to me.  I saw her success after many years of fad dieting and gimmicks that didn’t work so I knew this was the “real deal”. I knew it was the healthiest way to eat, but I wasn’t ready to fully embrace the changes for myself. Then Dr. Fuhrman came to Fort Wayne for the Health Immersion, and I listened to his lectures and they made a lot of sense. I finally understood that in order to reverse heart disease there could be no margin for cheating. It clicked, even though I still wasn’t ready to give it 100%. 

  • It’s helpful to have support from others. Most likely I could’ve changed on my own, because I was desperate to reverse my blocked arteries, but Emily’s ongoing support has been a huge contributing factor to my success. 

  • Be persistent and give it time. If unsalted food doesn’t taste that good to you in the beginning, be patient, because eventually your taste buds will change and you’ll enjoy the subtle flavors of foods without salt. It really does happen.   

 

In a nutshell, what has nutritarian eating done for you? 

It has changed my entire family’s life. First, Emily got her health back, and now all of us are eating healthy and feeling better because of it.  Plus we’ve all been spared a lot of unnecessary and costly suffering and tragedy as well. 

Sugary drinks linked to hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide

Just a week after the New York Supreme Court struck down Mayor Bloomberg’s proposed large sugary drink ban, which would have prohibited the sale of beverages larger than 16 ounces in many food outlets, research was presented at an American Heart Association meeting that linked consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages to hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide – 180,000 deaths per year.

Soda bottles. Flickr: dcJohn

Fruit-flavored drinks, sports drinks, energy drinks, soda, sweetened iced teas, etc. are consumed in huge quantities in the modern world. The average American consumes 22.2 teaspoons of added sugar daily, equating to 355 calories. Teens consume even more – 34.3 teaspoons or 549 calories a day, and half of the added sugars in the typical American diet come from sweetened drinks, mostly soda.1, 2

It is no secret that these sugary beverages are a threat to human health. Sugary drinks have very low satiety value, and extremely low to zero micronutrient content; the link between these beverages and weight gain is well-documented.3 However, these liquid calories carry more danger than excess calories alone – sugary drinks are powerfully disease-promoting.

Sugary drinks provide their huge calorie load with no fiber, and no chewing required; the sugar is consumed and then hits the bloodstream almost instantly. The surge of glucose in the blood (and fructose in the liver) sets off complex pathways in the body that, over time, contribute to insulin resistance, increased visceral fat mass, elevated cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure, and cancer cell survival and proliferation.4-8 Consumption of added sugars or sugar-sweetened beverages has been linked to diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancers.2, 9-15 There are also strong links between hyperinsulinemia (excess insulin in the blood, a consequence of excess blood glucose) and certain cancers.7, 16-19  

Researchers gathered data from the World Health Organization on sugary drink consumption, obesity and chronic disease in 114 countries. Knowing that sugary drinks promote obesity, and obesity is a risk factor for chronic diseases, they investigated the association between sweetened beverage consumption and obesity in the different countries, and then analyzed deaths from obesity-related chronic disease.  

These are their conclusions – estimates of the number of deaths per year that may be attributed to sugar sweetened beverages:20

  • Total deaths worldwide: 180,000

  • Total deaths in the U.S.: 25,000

  • Deaths from diabetes worldwide: 133,000

  • Deaths from cardiovascular disease worldwide: 44,000

One-hundred and eighty thousand deaths each year could possibly be prevented by simply drinking water instead of soda?

These estimates don’t even take into account the added sugars in breakfast cereals, baked goods, candy and ice cream that are so prevalent in the American diet – not to mention the oils, fried foods, white flour, white rice and animal products. Imagine the number of deaths that could be prevented, the health care costs that could be saved, and the excellent health our nation could enjoy by not just cutting out sugary drinks, but following a health-promoting Nutritarian lifestyle. Preventable diseases are our major killers, and we have the power to protect ourselves with superior nutrition.

It is clear that sugary drinks are disease-causing and each of us can make the simple choice to avoid disease-causing substances. The addictive properties of excessively sweet foods may make this choice difficult for many people, but hopefully research like this will reach many who are sick and overweight on the American diet, and help them to build the motivation they need to abstain from disease-causing sugary drinks. 

 

References:
1. Center for Science in the Public Interest. Sugar: Too Much of a Sweet Thing [http://cspinet.org/new/pdf/infographic_full.pdf]
2. Johnson RK, Appel LJ, Brands M, et al: Dietary sugars intake and cardiovascular health: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2009, 120:1011-1020.
3. Malik VS, Schulze MB, Hu FB: Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr 2006, 84:274-288.
4. Stanhope KL, Schwarz JM, Keim NL, et al: Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans. J Clin Invest 2009, 119:1322-1334.
5. Cohen L, Curhan G, Forman J: Association of Sweetened Beverage Intake with Incident Hypertension. J Gen Intern Med 2012.
6. Maersk M, Belza A, Stodkilde-Jorgensen H, et al: Sucrose-sweetened beverages increase fat storage in the liver, muscle, and visceral fat depot: a 6-mo randomized intervention study. Am J Clin Nutr 2012, 95:283-289.
7. Arcidiacono B, Iiritano S, Nocera A, et al: Insulin resistance and cancer risk: an overview of the pathogenetic mechanisms. Exp Diabetes Res 2012, 2012:789174.
8. Port AM, Ruth MR, Istfan NW: Fructose consumption and cancer: is there a connection? Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2012, 19:367-374.
9. Fagherazzi G, Vilier A, Saes Sartorelli D, et al: Consumption of artificially and sugar-sweetened beverages and incident type 2 diabetes in the Etude Epidemiologique aupres des femmes de la Mutuelle Generale de l'Education Nationale-European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 2013.
10. Malik VS, Hu FB: Sweeteners and Risk of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages. Curr Diab Rep 2012.
11. Malik VS, Popkin BM, Bray GA, et al: Sugar Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2010.
12. Basu S, Yoffe P, Hills N, et al: The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: an econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data. PLoS One 2013, 8:e57873.
13. Bernstein AM, de Koning L, Flint AJ, et al: Soda consumption and the risk of stroke in men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 2012.
14. Friberg E, Wallin A, Wolk A: Sucrose, high-sugar foods, and risk of endometrial cancer--a population-based cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2011, 20:1831-1837.
15. De Stefani E, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Mendilaharsu M, et al: Dietary sugar and lung cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay. Nutr Cancer 1998, 31:132-137.
16. Bowker SL, Majumdar SR, Veugelers P, et al: Increased cancer-related mortality for patients with type 2 diabetes who use sulfonylureas or insulin: Response to Farooki and Schneider. Diabetes Care 2006, 29:1990-1991.
17. Gunter MJ, Hoover DR, Yu H, et al: Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, endogenous estradiol, and risk of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women. Cancer Res 2008, 68:329-337.
18. Gunter MJ, Hoover DR, Yu H, et al: Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst 2009, 101:48-60.
19. Pisani P: Hyper-insulinaemia and cancer, meta-analyses of epidemiological studies. Arch Physiol Biochem 2008, 114:63-70.
20. 180,000 deaths worldwide may be associated with sugary soft drinks. American Heart Association Meeting Report.

Salt drives autoimmune disease?

In autoimmune conditions, the body undergoes an inappropriate immune response that causes excessive inflammation with destructive effects on cells and tissues. Currently, about 23.5 million Americans suffer from an autoimmune disease, and that number is rising.1 The reasons behind the increasing prevalence are unknown, but environmental influences, such as diet, are believed to play a role. I have reported here before that elevated blood pressure is not the only danger associated with salt. In my medical practice, I have observed beneficial effects of a low-salt diet for autoimmune conditions, and for years I have been advising patients with autoimmune disease to avoid added salt. Now, new research confirms my clinical observations that salt may increase the inflammation associated with several autoimmune conditions.

What are T helper 17 (TH17) cells?
TH17 cells are immune cells that are involved in the body’s defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens, and help to recruit other important immune cells to sites of infection. TH17 cells seem to come in two different varieties, the standard protective TH17 cell, and the pathogenic TH17 cell, depending on the particular molecules that drive their differentiation from immature T cells to mature T helper cells. Pathogenic TH17 cells produce more pro-inflammatory markers and appear to be involved in the abnormal immune responses associated with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease and multiple sclerosis.2,3

Recent studies connect salt intake and pathogenic TH17 cells
Two recent studies published last week in Nature collectively suggest that excess sodium drives autoimmunity at the cellular level.4-6 One group of researchers had previously observed increased TH17 cell numbers in the blood of people who consumed fast food more often; hypothesizing salt might be involved, they conducted experiments on the effects of elevated sodium concentrations on the differentiation of immature human T cells into pathogenic TH17 cells. They indeed found that high sodium concentrations drove a dramatic increase (almost ten-fold) in differentiation into pathogenic TH17 cells in culture. To strengthen these findings, they fed mice predisposed to a TH17-related autoimmune disease either a standard or high-salt diet. The high-salt diet accelerated the development of the autoimmune disease, and the symptoms were more severe on the high-salt diet than on the standard diet.4,7

A separate group of scientists was investigating the changes in gene expression that occur during the differentiation process of immature T cells into pathogenic TH17 cells. They noticed increases over time in the expression of a protein called SGK1, which is known to mediate sodium transport and sodium balance in other cell types. They performed additional experiments, and they found that increased salt concentration increased SGK1 expression and, similar to the first study, pathogenic TH17 differentiation. These studies suggest that high salt intake may increase the numbers of circulating pathogenic TH17 cells, contributing to autoimmune inflammation.8

This research raises the possibility that increased salt intake may be a significant environmental influence driving the growing prevalence of autoimmune conditions.

We already know that excess salt intake is associated with elevated blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, osteoporosis, ulcers and gastric cancer;9 now autoimmune inflammation is another danger we can add to the list. For optimal health, we should minimize added salt and strive to consume only the sodium present in natural foods.

 

References:

1. American Autoimmune Related Disease Association: Autoimmune Statistics [http://www.aarda.org/autoimmune_statistics.php]
2. Peters A, Lee Y, Kuchroo VK: The many faces of Th17 cells. Curr Opin Immunol 2011, 23:702-706.
3. Awasthi A, Kuchroo VK: Th17 cells: from precursors to players in inflammation and infection. Int Immunol 2009, 21:489-498.
4. Harmon K: Salt linked to autoimmune diseases. In Nature News; 2013.
5. Leslie M: Salty Food May Be a Culprit in Autoimmune Disease. In Science NOW; 2013.
6. Yandell K: Salt at Fault? In The Scientist; 2013.
7. Kleinewietfeld M, Manzel A, Titze J, et al: Sodium chloride drives autoimmune disease by the induction of pathogenic T17 cells. Nature 2013.
8. Wu C, Yosef N, Thalhamer T, et al: Induction of pathogenic T17 cells by inducible salt-sensing kinase SGK1. Nature 2013.
9. Tsugane S, Sasazuki S: Diet and the risk of gastric cancer: review of epidemiological evidence. Gastric Cancer 2007, 10:75-83.

 

I Could Never Do That!

The following post was originally published on Disease Proof about two years ago. I thought it’d be helpful to dig it out of the archives for some inspiration again this time of year. Even now, I still hear, “Oh, I could never do that!” in response to the way I eat, and I’m sure that many of you do too. It’s good to be reminded on a regular basis of the many medical problems that we nutritarians get to bypass, and the many wonderful pleasures that we get to enjoy as a result! Some of the comments at the end are funny, heartbreaking, and thought-provoking all rolled into one. May they encourage and uplift heavy hearts, and cheer everyone on in the pursuit of excellent health. Cheers to all!

 

vegetablesIn the Fall of 2008, after I had dropped 40 lbs in three months, my peers started commenting and asking questions about the noticeable changes. By the next Spring, when 100 pounds were off, complete strangers such as clerks in stores would comment and ask questions as well.

Everyone’s question was, “How did you lose weight?” 

Of which my reply would always be, “By following Dr. Joel Fuhrman’s book, Eat to Live;. . . . basically eating lots of high nutrient, plant-based foods.” 

“You mean no meat? No cheese? No pizza? No McDonald’s? . . . . Oh, I could never do that!” 

Now, over 2 ½ years later, the majority still say to me, “Oh I could never do that!” in response to anything remotely related to the idea of eating meals primarily composed of plant based nutrition. 

 

Well, the following is what I think in response to, “I could never do that”:

 

  • I could never blow the family budget on unnecessary test strips, insulin, medications, doctor and hospital bills, or bypass surgery.

  • I could never carry around expensive medical supplies and meds while traveling.

  • I could never ask a loved one to mow the lawn for me due to fatigue and ill health.

  • I could never turn a child away from playing a game due to a migraine headache.

  • I could never miss out on the joy of a wedding celebration due to obesity and depression.

  • I could never ask someone to drive me to kidney dialysis three times a week.

     

 

 

Dr. Fuhrman added:

 

  • I could never have heartburn and burping half the night.

  • I could never sit in the bathroom for 15 minutes trying to painfully squeeze out a hard log.

  • I could never watch a volleyball game at the beach instead of playing in it.

  • I could never have rubber bands put on painful hemorrhoids by a rectal specialist.

  • I could never worry about running to catch a bus, for fear of having a heart attack. 

  • I could never have such severe stomach cramps that emergency room personnel would assume it was a heart attack. 

  • I could never fall down and fracture a hip because my blood pressure medications dropped my blood pressure too low.

  • I could never be intubated in the ER with a tube put down my throat and hooked up to a breathing machine after suffering a heart attack.

  • I could never be in a nursing home unable to talk after a stroke or move the left side of my body. 

 

How about you? 

What could you never do?     

 

 

image credit: flickr by Claudio Matsuoka and FotoosVanRobin 

 

Never Give Up

 

There's nothing more deeply satisfying than crossing the finish line of a goal accomplished. 

 

This past year my 21-year-old son died unexpectedly. After the initial shock wore off, I entered into a dark season of PTSD and bereavement for several months. During the most acute phase of it I could barely function, because I would be in a daze of paralyzing grief and confusion. I had a difficult time accomplishing the simplest of tasks such as unloading the dishwasher or starting a load of laundry.  Vigorous workouts were unthinkable in the quagmire of my demise.  I couldn’t even successfully take inventory of food to make a grocery list, let alone muster up the strength to navigate the supermarket aisles or prepare a pot of soup.

I continued to eat whole foods, but many times a meal only consisted of a bowl of oatmeal and an apple; or a green pepper with hummus, a banana, and some nuts. I was just too overwhelmed in the anguish of grief to care for myself properly during that time and apathy set in.   

It saddens me when I hear some say, "I fell off the wagon" in reference to making unwise choices due to a stressful day or difficult season of life. Hard times happen to everyone; they just do. Unless one has made a conscious decision to completely throw in the towel and quit eating healthfully altogether, no one has fallen off any wagons.  The nutritarian eating-style is for life; not a diet to jump on and off on a whim. The wagon mentality only fuels yo-yo dieting for those who buy into that mindset. And the most dangerous part is that staying off the wagon may last for days, weeks, or years . . .until one gets psyched up to get back on it again.  

Even if some days are like wading through quick sand, and it’s a challenge to continue on, stay committed to making wise food choices as best as one can possibly manage.  It may be only baby steps, but keep moving forward in the pursuit of excellent health. There’s never a valid excuse to throw in the towel and completely quit, because nothing is more deeply satisfying than crossing the finish line of a goal accomplished. Earning one’s health back is a priceless treasure that comes with absolutely no regrets.

The sun will shine again and happiness will return as one continues to stay the course.

Never give up.

“It will take strength. It will take effort. But the pleasure and rewards that you’ll get from a healthy life will be priceless.”   Dr. Fuhrman

 

 

image credit: celebration by Elijah Lynn


 

Diet soda linked to increased diabetes risk

It is widely known that sugar-sweetened beverages promote weight gain and type 2 diabetes.1-3 However, artificially sweetened beverages are regarded by many as safe alternatives that will satisfy sweet cravings while preventing the dangerous surge in blood glucose from their sugar-sweetened counterparts, thereby circumventing the weight gain and associated increase in diabetes risk.

Are people who drink diet soda less likely to end up with diabetes?

The newest research says no. A recent French study following 66,118 women for 14 years uncovered strong trends of increased diabetes risk in women who consumed greater amounts of either sugar-sweetened or artificially sweetened beverages; for each type of beverage, as consumption increased, risk increased. The authors note that this effect was only partly dependent on body mass index (BMI); that means that it wasn’t just that overweight people were the ones drinking the diet soda and getting diabetes. Women who drank at least one 20-ounce diet soda per week had a risk more than double (a 121% increase in risk) that of women who did not consume any sweetened beverages. High consumers of sugar-sweetened beverages, who drank 12 ounces per week or more, had a 34% increase in diabetes risk.4

Artificial sweeteners, weight gain and diabetes

Since a major purpose of artificial sweeteners is to avoid calorie load, it seems counterintuitive, but artificial sweeteners have been associated with weight gain in several (though not all) observational studies.5,6 In the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), drinking diet soda at least once daily was associated with high waist circumference and a 67% greater risk of type 2 diabetes seven years later.7 Similarly, saccharin use (during the 1970s) was associated with weight gain during the following eight years in the Nurses’ Health Study.8 In the San Antonio Heart Study, normal weight subjects who consumed 21 or more artificially sweetened beverages per week almost doubled (93% increase) their risk of overweight or obesity eight years later.9

How might artificial sweeteners promote weight gain?

Artificial sweeteners mimic the sweet taste of sugar, but do not provide the high calorie load – but it seems that it’s not that simple. What happens in the body when we consume a diet soda? Just because diet sodas do not contain calories doesn’t mean they don’t have any physiological effects.

First, simply because they taste sweet, artificial sweeteners promote desire for and dependence on excessively sweet tastes. These excessively sweet tastes are unnatural, hundreds or thousands of times sweeter than table sugar, which in itself is unnaturally sweet. Throughout human history, the body has been accustomed to the more subtle, naturally sweet tastes in fruits and starchy vegetables. Someone who consistently consumes artificially sweetened foods or beverages is training their taste buds to prefer excessive sweetness. Therefore, artificial sweeteners are counterproductive in that they keep the body craving excessively sweet flavors rather than naturally sweet flavors. Some research has suggested that increased use of artificial sweeteners indeed increases appetite or sweet cravings.10 There is also evidence that consuming artificially sweetened beverages between meals (in the absence of calories) increases appetite and food consumption during the next meal.11 Sweet tastes also produce reward signals in the brain, and there is some evidence that artificial sweeteners produce “incomplete” reward signals, leading to incomplete satisfaction and cravings for more food.10

Another potential explanation is the concept of “informed overcompensation.” For example, perceiving that she has “saved” calories by drinking a diet soda with her dinner, a woman decides to order dessert.  Interestingly, it has been shown that knowingly (but not unknowingly) consuming artificially sweetened foods led to overcompensation with increased caloric intake.11,12

Another interesting explanation is a possible dysregulation of hunger and satiety signals in the body. This may occur due to an inconsistent relationship between sweetness and amount of calories supplied.  The body uses information from the sweetness and calorie load of previous meals in order to predict calorie load from the level of sweetness in future meals. Artificially sweeteners may “uncouple” sweetness and calories, impairing normal physiologic mechanisms that regulate energy balance. There is evidence for this impaired energy balance with several artificial sweeteners. Rats regularly exposed to artificially-sweetened food (or drink) were less able to regulate their calorie intake when given sugar-sweetened, calorie-dense meals, and they gain excess weight.6,13 

Steer clear of artificial sweeteners, and prevent diabetes naturally

The safety of many of these artificial sweeteners has been questioned; most are relatively new compounds, and their long-term health effects are still uncertain.14  These are not natural, whole foods, so it is wise to avoid them. The evidence suggests that they are not helpful for weight loss, and certainly not the solution to obesity and diabetes epidemics. However, you can protect yourself against type 2 diabetes, or reverse type 2 diabetes if you already have it, by simply following a health-promoting eating style and exercising frequently. The dietary program described in my book The End of Diabetesis a vegetable-based eating style, including naturally sweet foods like fresh fruits and squashes, designed to maximize nutrient content per calorie. For type 2 diabetes, this approach results in complete reversal of diabetes for the majority of patients. For type 1 diabetes, it eliminates the excessive highs and lows and prevents dangerous complications. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetics can maintain excellent health and quality of life into old age with natural foods and exercise.

References:

1. Malik VS, Schulze MB, Hu FB: Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:274-288.
2. Malik VS, Hu FB: Sweeteners and Risk of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: The Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages. Curr Diab Rep 2012.
3. Malik VS, Popkin BM, Bray GA, et al: Sugar Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2010.
4. Fagherazzi G, Vilier A, Saes Sartorelli D, et al: Consumption of artificially and sugar-sweetened beverages and incident type 2 diabetes in the Etude Epidemiologique aupres des femmes de la Mutuelle Generale de l'Education Nationale-European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 2013.
5. Anderson GH, Foreyt J, Sigman-Grant M, et al: The use of low-calorie sweeteners by adults: impact on weight management. J Nutr 2012;142:1163S-1169S.
6. Pepino MY, Bourne C: Non-nutritive sweeteners, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2011;14:391-395.
7. Nettleton JA, Lutsey PL, Wang Y, et al: Diet soda intake and risk of incident metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Diabetes Care 2009;32:688-694.
8. Colditz GA, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, et al: Patterns of weight change and their relation to diet in a cohort of healthy women. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;51:1100-1105.
9. Fowler SP, Williams K, Resendez RG, et al: Fueling the obesity epidemic? Artificially sweetened beverage use and long-term weight gain. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008;16:1894-1900.
10. Yang Q: Gain weight by "going diet?" Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings: Neuroscience 2010. Yale J Biol Med 2010;83:101-108.
11. Mattes RD, Popkin BM: Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;89:1-14.
12. Mattes R: Effects of aspartame and sucrose on hunger and energy intake in humans. Physiol Behav 1990;47:1037-1044.
13. Swithers SE, Martin AA, Davidson TL: High-intensity sweeteners and energy balance. Physiol Behav 2010;100:55-62.
14. Center for Science in the Public Interest: Chemical Cuisine. Learn about Food Additives. [http://www.cspinet.org/reports/chemcuisine.htm]

Tags: