Extinguish the pilot light

I grew up on a farm. In addition to an orchard my parents always put in a large garden every spring. It produced a bountiful harvest to can quarts of green beans, tomatoes, tomato sauces & juices, corn, peas, beets, and pickles . . . .enough to last a family throughout the winter, with plenty of surplus leftover to sell along the road.  From mid-July until school started every fall, snapping beans, shelling peas, shredding cabbage, shucking corn, and washing tomatoes, pickles, carrots and beets for preservation were a huge part of summer.

Most farmhouses had a “summer kitchen.” It was a nifty, second kitchen; away from the main part of the house and used for the stifling hot process of canning the vegetables, making jams and applesauce, and baking fruit pies and apple cakes for the freezer. Since residential air conditioning was practically unheard of when I was a kid, the house stayed cooler by not heating up the regular kitchen. 

In the southwest corner of this room was an old gas stove. I was taught from an early age to respect the pilot light that remained continuously lit. As in all gas stoves, the purpose of this pilot light was to serve as the ignition source for more powerful flames; ones that could produce the necessary heat to cook and preserve food.  

My mom would strike a small, wooden match and hold it near the burner. Instantly it would ignite into a full, explosive flame. 

                               ________________________________

 

Fast forward about forty years. I’m now a fifty-year-old woman who has lost weight and restored health by nourishing my body with high-nutrient, plant foods. As a result of flooding my body with nutrients, combined with consistently abstaining from the standard American diet, addictive cravings for high fat, high salt, processed & sugary foods have been eradicated from my life. 

Because of this, I’m routinely asked:

  • How closely do I really have to follow Eat to Live?” 
  • How many times a month can I cheat and still have success?
  • I’m not hard core, but I follow the plan about 85% of the time; that’s good enough, isn’t it?”   

Of which my classic answer to all three questions is, “It all depends on how hard you want to make it on yourself.” 

 

It’s much easier and simpler to give 100% right from the beginning and keep the pilot light of addictive cravings extinguished, than to be continually fighting obsessive compulsions that are brewing beneath the surface. Been there. Done that. And it’s hard, hard work to keep cravings from becoming an all-consuming monster. In fact, it’s exhausting because it’s a next-to-impossible feat to accomplish!

 

Plus, it only takes the tiniest spark to ignite the pilot light of cravings to full power again, and that’s THE most dangerous place to live! 

One can do all the work of routinely preparing and eating high-nutrient foods, and get the majority of one’s health restored; but it may only take an emergency phone call, or a sudden traumatic event, or a stress-filled day with the kids to instantly ignite the raging flame of addiction.  

It’s just not worth it. 

Give yourself a break today and make life so much easier.

Give 100% and extinguish the pilot light!      

 

 

 

image credits:  tomatoes, flickr by MaplessInSeattle; match, flickr by Samuel M. Livingston  

So what's your Jack Daniels?

fake food

Every year since 2008, I've made it my mission, once a year, to re-read Drunkard, written by Neil Steinberg.

For those of you who know my story, reading that book was one of my ‘turning point’ moments, because it demolished my concrete wall of denial. It forced me to face the ugliness of food addiction head on . . . smack-in-the-face, kind of head on.

Every time that I've read it something new pops out.

This time, it was Steinberg's description of his moment to unwind after work, at the bar, just before drinking his favorite glass of Jack Daniels. He describes it so eloquently in the following excerpt from page nine:


" . . . .I always pause to gaze for a rapt moment at the filled glass, the ice, the Jack, the square napkin, the dark linoleum bar. The twirling universe stops dead, the Jack its motionless epicenter. I pick up the glass and take a long draw." 1


 

When the kids were little and I was obese my "Jack Daniels" was the leftovers after the evening meal. I couldn't wait to be alone in the kitchen. All alone. Totally by myself, kind of alone (while the children were wrestling with Dad in another room) . . . to unwind and soothe my frazzled nerves by eating the slightly burnt & greasy roast and potatoes that were stuck to the sides of the crock pot; or to eat the crusty & gooey leftover lasagna sitting in the pan; or the kids' leftover soggy salads that were swimming in ranch dressing and bacon bits; or the leftover dinner rolls that mopped-up the ranch dressing; or the pieces of cake with melted ice-cream cascading down the sides. The twirling universe stopped at those moments for me.

Ahhh . . . . . the epicenter of calm had been visited.

Later in the evening, after baths for the children, brushing their teeth, bedtime stories, and tucking them into bed, I returned once again to the epicenter of calm . . . .the large, ceramic bowl of Frosted Mini Wheat cereal soaked in milk with a couple spoonfuls of crunchy peanut butter on top.  Ahhh . . . .

 

Then I *graduated* to more acceptable ways of escape:

  • Alone time with a humongous bowl of mixed greens drizzled with balsamic vinegar, sunflower seeds, sliced strawberries, and chick peas; followed by a plate of California Creamed Kale. I'd eat beyond full, stuffed, and then some, and still lose weight!
  • Scraping the remaining sorbet or banana ice-cream from the sides of the Vita Mix canister and eating it.  Whether I was hungry or not had absolutely nothing to do with the growing habit.
  • Grabbing extra handfuls of walnuts and raisins while working in the kitchen.

 

If I'm not careful, Jack can still creep into my life ~ ever so slowly now, of course.  He's still there if I'm not cautiously aware of his presence.

He's hiding in the dark crevices, but as long as I continue to shine the flashlight on him, and continue to expose him, he can't and won't harm me!

 

Exposing Jack makes him powerless; he's a coward in the light.

Don't give him the pleasure of lulling you into believing that he will be your calm.

It's a lie.

 before and after pics of Emily Boller

The images above were taken three years apart.  The picture on the left was taken in the summer of 2008 when I was captive to Jack as my epicenter of calm.  The picture on the right was taken this past summer after three years of consistent abstinence AND freedom from food addiction's suffocating grip.   

 

So what’s your Jack Daniels?

 

 

 

Related posts: 

Are you a food addict?  by Dr. Fuhrman

Breaking up is hard to do  by Dr. Fuhrman

The powerful freedom of abstinence  by Emily Boller

Junk food - just as addictive as smoking?  by Dr. Ferreri

 

 

Reference:  

1. Steinberg, Neil. Drunkard. New York: Dutton, 2008, p.9

Photography credit:  Fake Food by Esther Boller 

Painting:   Absinthe (1876) by Edgar Degas; Muesee d’Orsay, Paris

Interview with a Nutritarian: Jaime

Whether we realize it or not, we’re always influencing others, for good or for bad, by the choices we make. It’s always fun to read the rippling affects that one person’s wise choices have on many others. Remember Jodi’s interview  from a few weeks back? Jodi not only got her health back, but her actions made a life-changing impact on her younger sister, Jaime, in the process. Welcome to Disease Proof Jaime.  

           

 

What was your life like before discovering Dr. Fuhrman’s nutritarian eating-style?

I suffered terribly from migraines. My life revolved around headaches; either having them or worrying that I would get one. Last year I was averaging twelve migraines every month. For years I was on multiple medications for headache pain and preventative care.   I felt trapped. I was taking so many drugs that I didn’t know whether I had major health issues or just lots of side effects from all the medications. I felt like there was no hope for my headaches so I just accepted the suffering, and lived for the next miracle pill. I also ate lots of the wrong kinds of foods and was very self conscious about my weight, and as a result, suffered from low self-esteem.      

 

How did you find out about Eat to Live?

I knew about Eat to Live from my sister, Jodi.  After many years of hearing about it I dabbled with some of the concepts for awhile, but then quit. I knew how successful Jodi was at eating high-nutrient foods and witnessed her miraculous recovery, but I never thought I’d embrace this eating-style for myself. 

When Eat for Health came out Jodi sent the book set to me. It sat in the wrapper for three months before I even opened it. One day I decided I was sick of how I looked and felt so I opened the books and read them from cover to cover. Right then I decided I wanted to do this. 

My migraines did not improve though, because I was following the eating plan during the week and eating my old foods on the weekends. I ate this way for over a couple of years. 

Jodi had always suggested that I attend one of Dr. Fuhrman’s Health Getaways, but I never considered going to one. Somehow I ended up going with Jodi to the Getaway in San Diego in the summer of 2010. However, I’d decided beforehand that I would have no interest in the lectures, but at least it would be great being with my sister for a week. 

My life changed that week! Besides the wonderful week with my sister, I met the most amazing people, and Dr. Fuhrman’s lectures were incredible! Also, two moments that were pivotal for me was Sarah Taylor, the emcee, asked us to make a commitment to follow Eat to Live for 30 or 60 days; and that night I made a commitment for 30 days. The other moment was when you [Emily] told your success story and said that one can’t “straddle the fence” and expect to see great results; meaning one can’t have one foot in nutritarian eating and the other foot in the standard American diet . . .  both feet have to be in. That made a big impact on me since I could totally relate. I still think about those “Wow!” moments to this day.

 

How do you feel now?

I feel amazing! I made it to my first 30 days and was so excited that I committed to 30 more! During that time, I had one headache…one headache in 60 days! 

With each pound lost, I gained confidence as I realized there was a whole different person inside of me, and I liked the new person too!   My personality changed because I was feeling so well and not living under a cloud of headaches. The improvements have been incredible; I saw them instantly and I have never stopped seeing them. I’ve had five migraines (total) since making the commitment to high-nutrient eating, and none were bad or long-lasting. I’ve taken no medications whatsoever; and today, a year later, I am totally migraine free!  

I’ve lost a total of sixty-one pounds, have my life back, and feel great! The weight loss was the bonus to it all!

 

What success tips have helped you the most?

 

  • Making the commitment in short, achievable goals worked for me because I was able to meet those goals and feel the success. 

  • I do not look at the Eat to Live eating-style as a diet, but how I live my life.  I never falter in my belief that I want to eat this way for the rest of my life.

  • Have a support system. My sister has been my best cheerleader and her support has been unwavering. Also, the members on Dr. Fuhrman’s website have so many tips to share; the people that I've met through the whole experience have helped me so much . . . . support makes a huge difference. 

  • I work long hours during the week so I make recipes on the weekend. I love blended soups which are easy to make and then I freeze them in smaller containers. In the cooler weather I'll have soup every night with either leftovers or steamed vegetables. I always have fruit with greens at breakfast and some kind of whole grain. I make huge salads to take to work. I love them. I love all the foods that I eat. 

  • Experiment with foods and tastes that you like. Food has to appeal to you. I like sweets so I tend to have dressings, sauces and soups that taste sweet. 

  • I also love Dr. Fuhrman’s website for studying recipes and using the recipe rating system.  

  • Find what you like to eat and discover what motivates you . . . and enjoy your life!

 

IJodi and Jaime (sisters)n a nutshell, what has nutritarian eating done for you? 

Nutritarian eating has truly changed my life! Besides the obvious of eliminating migraines and the weight loss, the total change has brought me such confidence, happiness, and pride. I’m healthy now and a totally different person! 

My husband, Joe, has been so amazing and supportive; and Jodi has been my inspiration, and I can’t thank her enough . . . . . but I also know that I did this . . . . no one else did it for me, and that is the best feeling in the world!   

I had the power and desire to live. 

There is no going back for me.

 

 

Congratulations Jaime ~ we are so proud of you!  Keep up the great job!

Which foods are most protective against colon cancer?

It is estimated that there are more than 100,000 new cases of colon cancer diagnosed each year in the U.S. alone, and colon and rectal cancers are the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths.1  The American Institute for Cancer Research estimates that forty-five percent of these new cases could be prevented by following a few simple lifestyle habits: avoiding processed and red meat, exercising regularly, maintaining a healthy weight, and limiting alcohol consumption.2  But we can do better – imagine the level of protection if we not only avoided carcinogenic foods, but also focused on eating the foods that work on a cellular level to prevent  colon cancer.

So which foods offer us the best protection?

Anti-cancer compounds have been identified in many plant foods: for example cruciferous vegetables, mushrooms, and the onion and garlic family are known to contain substances that can prevent cellular processes involved in cancer development. Certainly, a diet high in fruits and vegetables in general is protective3-5, but many observational studies on diet have not investigated specific food groups, only broad categories like “fruits,” “vegetables,” etc.  But there is a wide range of anti-cancer activity in the wide range of plant foods – for example, kale is more protective than iceberg lettuce.  Identifying these protective plant foods helps us to construct an anti-colon cancer diet.

A recent study aimed to find some specific foods and food groups that protect against colon cancer. Twenty-six years after reporting information about their diets, subjects were asked whether they had undergone screening colonoscopy, and if so, whether they had physician-diagnosed polyps. The majority of colorectal cancers originate from polyps, so polyps are considered a precursor to the development of cancer. This study was part of the larger Adventist Health Study, which studies relationships between diet and chronic disease in members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, which emphasizes healthy living in its teachings.

The researchers examined about 25 different foods and food groups. Those that were associated with reduced risk of polyps were cooked green vegetables, dried fruit, legumes (beans, lentils, etc.), and brown rice. All of these displayed dose-dependent effects, meaning that the more of these foods the subjects ate, the more protection they had from colon cancer.6

Green vegetables are rich in folate and isothiocyanates, nutrients with potent anti-cancer properties. Folate is a B vitamin that is involved in turning genes on and off – this is important in preventing the early cellular events that lead to cancer.  Adequate folate levels are protective against several cancers, including colon cancer. It is important to note, however, that synthetic folic acid from supplements is not protective.7,8  Isothiocyanates are a group of nutrients found in cruciferous vegetables that have a wide variety of cancer preventive properties – they can detoxify or remove carcinogens from healthy cells, kill cancer cells, have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, and prevent tumors from acquiring a blood supply.9 

The protection from beans and other legumes was likely due to their soluble fiber and resistant starch, carbohydrates that are not broken down by digestive enzymes.  Intestinal bacteria ferment these carbohydrates, forming short chain fatty acids such as butyrate.  Butyrate has a number of anti-cancer effects including disrupting cancer cell growth, increasing levels of detoxification enzymes, limiting DNA damage, and preventing tumors from acquiring a blood supply.10-13

 High fiber foods, including dried fruit and brown rice (as well as vegetables and beans) help to reduce transit time of gastrointestinal contents through the colon – this reduces the potential contact between dietary toxins or carcinogens and the cells that line the colon.  Reduced transit time is believed to be an important contribution of fiber to the prevention of colon cancer. 14,15  Raisins, probably the most popular dried fruit, have been shown to increase short chain fatty acid production and decrease colon transit time.16,17 In addition to fiber content, dried fruit likely also contributed antioxidant protection of colon cells from DNA damage, which is an early event in the development of cancer.18 

Previous studies found a protective effect of berries, citrus fruits, and yellow-orange vegetables, which was likely due to their high concentration of flavonoid and carotenoid antioxidants, respectively.10,19,20Additional studies on specific food groups have also found a reduced risk of colon polyps with high intake of green leafy vegetables (many of which are cruciferous), onions, and garlic.12,19

All of these foods contain known anti-cancer compounds, and of course there are thousands of anti-cancer compounds in plant foods that scientists have not yet discovered.  Each of these colorful plant foods contains a spectrum of micronutrients and phytochemicals that work in concert to protect the body against carcinogenic influences. Future studies will continue to reveal these phytochemicals and their anti-cancer properties.

My new book Super Immunity, which will be released September 20, 2011, discusses in depth the connections between diet and cancer. 

 

References:

1. American Cancer Society. What are the key statistics about colorectal cancer? [http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/ColonandRectumCancer/DetailedGuide/colorectal-cancer-key-statistics ]

2. American Institute for Cancer Research. What you need to know about preventing colorectal cancer. http://www.aicr.org/reduce-your-cancer-risk/cancer-site/cancersite_colon_rectum.html. Accessed September 2, 2011.

3. Reedy J, Krebs-Smith SM: A comparison of food-based recommendations and nutrient values of three food guides: USDA's MyPyramid, NHLBI's Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Eating Plan, and Harvard's Healthy Eating Pyramid. J Am Diet Assoc 2008;108:522-528.

4. van Duijnhoven FJ, Bueno-De-Mesquita HB, Ferrari P, et al: Fruit, vegetables, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:1441-1452.

5. Wirfalt E, Midthune D, Reedy J, et al: Associations between food patterns defined by cluster analysis and colorectal cancer incidence in the NIH-AARP diet and health study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2009;63:707-717.

6. Tantamango YM, Knutsen SF, Beeson WL, et al: Foods and food groups associated with the incidence of colorectal polyps: the Adventist Health Study. Nutr Cancer 2011;63:565-572.

7. Kim YI: Role of folate in colon cancer development and progression. The Journal of nutrition 2003;133:3731S-3739S.

8. Kim YI: Folate and colorectal cancer: an evidence-based critical review. Molecular nutrition & food research 2007;51:267-292.

9. Higdon J, Delage B, Williams D, et al: Cruciferous vegetables and human cancer risk: epidemiologic evidence and mechanistic basis. Pharmacol Res 2007;55:224-236.

10. O'Keefe SJ, Ou J, Aufreiter S, et al: Products of the colonic microbiota mediate the effects of diet on colon cancer risk. J Nutr 2009;139:2044-2048.

11. Dronamraju SS, Coxhead JM, Kelly SB, et al: Cell kinetics and gene expression changes in colorectal cancer patients given resistant starch: a randomised controlled trial. Gut 2009;58:413-420.

12. Williams EA, Coxhead JM, Mathers JC: Anti-cancer effects of butyrate: use of micro-array technology to investigate mechanisms. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 2003;62:107-115.

13. Hamer HM, Jonkers D, Venema K, et al: Review article: the role of butyrate on colonic function. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2008;27:104-119.

14. Jacobs LR: Modification of experimental colon carcinogenesis by dietary fibers. Adv Exp Med Biol 1986;206:105-118.

15. Gear JS, Brodribb AJ, Ware A, et al: Fibre and bowel transit times. Br J Nutr 1981;45:77-82.

16. Spiller GA, Story JA, Furumoto EJ, et al: Effect of tartaric acid and dietary fibre from sun-dried raisins on colonic function and on bile acid and volatile fatty acid excretion in healthy adults. The British journal of nutrition 2003;90:803-807.

17. Spiller GA, Story JA, Lodics TA, et al: Effect of sun-dried raisins on bile acid excretion, intestinal transit time, and fecal weight: a dose-response study. Journal of medicinal food 2003;6:87-91.

18. Federico A, Morgillo F, Tuccillo C, et al: Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress in human carcinogenesis. International journal of cancer Journal international du cancer 2007;121:2381-2386.

19. Wu H, Dai Q, Shrubsole MJ, et al: Fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with lower risk of colorectal adenomas. J Nutr 2009;139:340-344.

20. Michels KB, Giovannucci E, Chan AT, et al: Fruit and vegetable consumption and colorectal adenomas in the Nurses' Health Study. Cancer Res 2006;66:3942-3953.

 

Nuts: an important component of an anti-diabetes diet

Complications from diabetes result from constant elevations in blood glucose, which damage the blood vessels and other tissues. Excess glucose in the bloodstream results in the formation of Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) – products formed when sugars react with and consequently damage proteins or fats in the body’s tissues, especially the blood vessels.  AGEs are produced at an accelerated rate in diabetics and contribute to complications such as impaired wound healing, diabetic nephropathy, and atherosclerosis.1-4  In addition to the AGE produced in the body due to excess glucose, some can also come from the diet.  Fried foods, meats, and dry cooked starchy foods (roasted/fried potatoes, bread, crackers, cookies, muffins and other baked goods, cold cereals, etc.) are high in AGEs.5,6

Lessening after-meal blood glucose and exposure to AGEs:

In designing a diet for type 2 diabetics, we aim to limit after-meal increases in blood glucose and to avoid dangerous AGEs by choosing major calorie sources with a low glycemic load  (GL) – foods that provoke relatively small increases in blood glucose.  An important point here is to choose high nutrient, low GL foods, not just any low GL food – this is where some conventional diabetes diets fall short:

  • Meat is a low GL food, but higher meat consumption is associated with reduced lifespan and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes; the diabetes risk is likely due to weight gain and AGE content.5,7,8  A diabetic diet emphasizing meat sacrifices long-term health for short-term glycemic control.
  • Whole grain products and starchy vegetables. Whole grain intake is indeed associated with reduced risk of diabetes, probably due to fiber content.9,10  A low fat vegan diet emphasizing these foods in place of refined carbohydrates has shown some success with improving glycemic control.11 However, these diets tend to increase triglyceride levels (a risk factor for heart disease)12, and cooked grains and starches are not ideal calorie sources for diabetics because they still have a significant GL, as you can see in the table below:

Food


Glycemic Load
13

 
White rice 23
Meat (beef) negligible
Whole grain (brown rice) 18
Beans (black or kidney) 7
Legumes (lentils) 5
Nuts (cashews) 3

Beans, and nuts (and seeds) are high in nutrients and low in GL, and are far more appropriate than grains and meat as major calorie sources for diabetics.  

Beans and legumes are higher in fiber and resistant starch than whole grains, with a lower GL. (To read more about why beans are superior to other carbohydrate sources for diabetics, read my recent Healthy Times Newsletter, Issue #44) 

Regular consumption of nuts and seeds has well documented cardiovascular benefits, including cholesterol lowering, antioxidant activity, improved endothelial function, and reduced risk of sudden cardiac death and coronary heart disease.14

In addition to reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, nuts have a number of properties that make them a favorable food for diabetics:15

  • Nuts are a high-nutrient source of plant protein, fiber, antioxidants, phytosterols, and minerals.  

  • Nuts provoke a minimal glycemic response, which helps to prevent post-meal hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and AGE production. They also help to reduce the GL of an entire meal – almonds have been found to decrease glycemic and insulin response of a carbohydrate-rich meal while reducing oxidative stress.16 

  • Nuts aid in weight maintenance – important since excess weight is the primary risk factor for diabetes. Despite their calorie density, greater nut consumption is associated with lower body weight, potentially due to appetite-suppression from healthy fats.17

  • Nuts have anti-inflammatory effects that may help to prevent insulin resistance18

In a recent study HbA1C, an indicator of long term glycemic control, was measured in diabetics consuming either 2.5 ounces/day of mostly raw mixed nuts or an equivalent number of calories in a muffin – a cooked starchy food (the muffin had the same amount of fiber and calories as the nuts).  HbA1C levels were lower in the nut group, suggesting long term protection from hyperglycemia when replacing carbohydrate foods with nuts.19,20

This new data cements the results of previous observational studies that have found inverse relationships between nut consumption and diabetes.  For example, the Nurses’ Health Study found a 27% reduced risk of diabetes in nurses who ate five or more servings of nuts per week.  Among nurses who already had diabetes, this same quantity reduced the risk of heart disease by 47%.21-23 

Nuts are an important part of a diabetes-reversal diet, along with green vegetables24, beans25, and low sugar fruits. In a recent study on type 2 diabetics following this diet, we found that 62% of the participants reached normal (nondiabetic) HbA1C levels within seven months, and the average number of medications required dropped from four to one.26  Nuts, seeds, beans, and vegetables not only keep glucose levels in check, but promote long term health as well.

 

References: 

1. Peppa M, Raptis SA: Glycoxidation and Wound Healing in Diabetes: An Interesting Relationshi. Curr Diabetes Rev 2011.

2. Peppa M, Stavroulakis P, Raptis SA: Advanced glycoxidation products and impaired diabetic wound healing. Wound Repair Regen 2009;17:461-472.

3. Goldin A, Beckman JA, Schmidt AM, et al: Advanced glycation end products: sparking the development of diabetic vascular injury. Circulation 2006;114:597-605.

4. Yamagishi S, Matsui T: Advanced glycation end products, oxidative stress and diabetic nephropathy. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2010;3:101-108.

5. Goldberg T, Cai W, Peppa M, et al: Advanced glycoxidation end products in commonly consumed foods. J Am Diet Assoc 2004;104:1287-1291.

6. Pruser KN, Flynn NE: Acrylamide in health and disease. Front Biosci (Schol Ed) 2011;3:41-51.

7. Sinha R, Cross AJ, Graubard BI, et al: Meat intake and mortality: a prospective study of over half a million people. Arch Intern Med 2009;169:562-571.

8. Aune D, Ursin G, Veierod MB: Meat consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Diabetologia 2009;52:2277-2287.

9. Montonen J, Knekt P, Jarvinen R, et al: Whole-grain and fiber intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:622-629.

10. Fung TT, Hu FB, Pereira MA, et al: Whole-grain intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study in men. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:535-540.

11. Trapp CB, Barnard ND: Usefulness of vegetarian and vegan diets for treating type 2 diabetes. Curr Diab Rep 2010;10:152-158.

12. Lichtenstein AH, Van Horn L: Very low fat diets. Circulation 1998;98:935-939.

13. Foster-Powell K, Holt SH, Brand-Miller JC: International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:5-56.

14. Kris-Etherton PM, Hu FB, Ros E, et al: The role of tree nuts and peanuts in the prevention of coronary heart disease: multiple potential mechanisms. J Nutr 2008;138:1746S-1751S.

15. Kendall CW, Josse AR, Esfahani A, et al: Nuts, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Br J Nutr 2010;104:465-473.

16. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Josse AR, et al: Almonds decrease postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative damage in healthy individuals. J Nutr 2006;136:2987-2992.

17. Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Bes-Rastrollo M: Nut consumption, weight gain and obesity: Epidemiological evidence. Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD 2011;21 Suppl 1:S40-45.

18. Casas-Agustench P, Bullo M, Salas-Salvado J: Nuts, inflammation and insulin resistance. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2010;19:124-130.

19. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Banach MS, et al: Nuts as a replacement for carbohydrates in the diabetic diet. Diabetes Care 2011;34:1706-1711.

20. Barclay L: Replacing Carbs With Nuts May Be Beneficial in Diabetes. 2011. Medscape Education Clinical Briefs. http://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/746264. Accessed August 30, 2011.

21. Jiang R, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al: Nut and peanut butter consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. JAMA 2002;288:2554-2560.

22. Kendall CW, Esfahani A, Truan J, et al: Health benefits of nuts in prevention and management of diabetes. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2010;19:110-116.

23. Li TY, Brennan AM, Wedick NM, et al: Regular consumption of nuts is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease in women with type 2 diabetes. J Nutr 2009;139:1333-1338.

24. Carter P, Gray LJ, Troughton J, et al: Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2010;341:c4229.

25. Villegas R, Gao YT, Yang G, et al: Legume and soy food intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in the Shanghai Women's Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:162-167.

26. Dunaief D, Gui-shuang Y, Fuhrman J, et al: Glycemic and cardiovascular parameters improved in type 2 diabetes with the high nutrient density diet. Presented at the 5th IANA (International Academy on Nutrition and Aging) meeting July 26 & 27, 2010 Hyatt Regency Tamaya Resort & Spa 1300 Tuyuna Trail Santa Ana Pueblo, NM, USA J Nutr Health Aging 2010;14:500.

 

 

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